- •The lymphoid organ developing high-titer anti-FVIII antibodies remains unclear.
- •We analyzed the contribution of spleen when inhibitor production is increased.
- •Splenic FVIII-PCs produce approximately 80% of anti-FVIII antibodies.
- •The spleen is a critical to initiate and enhance high-titer inhibitor production.
Hemophilia A (HA) is a hereditary bleeding disorder caused by defects in endogenous factor (F)VIII. Approximately 30 % of patients with severe HA treated with FVIII develop neutralizing antibodies (inhibitors) against FVIII, which render the therapy ineffective. The managements of HA patients with high-titter inhibitors are especially challenging. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanism(s) of high-titer inhibitor development and dynamics of FVIII-specific plasma cells (FVIII-PCs).
To identify the dynamics of FVIII-PCs and the lymphoid organs in which FVIII-PCs are localized during high-titer inhibitor formation.
Methods and results
When FVIII-KO mice were intravenously injected with recombinant (r)FVIII in combination with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a marked enhancement of anti-FVIII antibody induction was observed with increasing FVIII-PCs, especially in the spleen. When splenectomized or congenitally asplenic FVIII-KO mice were treated with LPS + rFVIII, the serum inhibitor levels decreased by approximately 80 %. Furthermore, when splenocytes or bone marrow (BM) cells from inhibitor+ FVIII-KO mice treated with LPS + rFVIII were grafted into immune-deficient mice, anti-FVIII IgG was detected only in the serum of splenocyte-administered mice and FVIII-PCs were detected in the spleen but not in the BM. In addition, when splenocytes from inhibitor+ FVIII-KO mice were grafted into splenectomized immuno-deficient mice, inhibitor levels were significantly reduced in the serum.
The spleen is the major site responsible for the expansion and retention of FVIII-PCs in the presence of high-titer inhibitors.
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Published online: March 16, 2023
Accepted: March 13, 2023
Received in revised form: January 22, 2023
Received: October 25, 2022
Publication stageIn Press Journal Pre-Proof
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