Advertisement

Inhibition of Smoking-Induced Platelet Aggregation by Aspirin and Pycnogenol

      Abstract

      The effects of a bioflavonoid mixture, Pycnogenol, were assessed on platelet function in humans. Cigarette smoking increased heart rate and blood pressure. These increases were not influenced by oral consumption of Pycnogenol or Aspirin just before smoking. However, increased platelet reactivity yielding aggregation 2 hours after smoking was prevented by 500 mg Aspirin or 100 mg Pycnogenol in 22 German heavy smokers. In a group of 16 American smokers, blood pressure increased after smoking. It was unchanged after intake of 500 mg Aspirin or 125 mg Pycnogenol. In another group of 19 American smokers, increased platelet aggregation was more significantly reduced by 200 than either 150 mg or 100 mg Pycnogenol supplementation. This study showed that a single, high dose, 200 mg Pycnogenol, remained effective for over 6 days against smoking-induced platelet aggregation. Smoking increased platelet aggregation that was prevented after administration of 500 mg Aspirin and 125 mg Pycnogenol. Thus, smoking-induced enhanced platelet aggregation was inhibited by 500 mg Aspirin as well as by a lower range of 100–125 mg Pycnogenol. Aspirin significantly (p<0.001) increased bleeding time from 167 to 236 seconds while Pycnogenol did not. These observations suggest an advantageous risk-benefit ratio for Pycnogenol.

      Keywords

      Abbreviations:

      PR, platelet reactivity (), FM, Friedman test (), SNK, Student Newman Keuls test ()
      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Thrombosis Research
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Hawkins R.J.
        Smoking, platelets and thrombosis.
        Nature. 1972; 236: 450-452
        • Wolf H.A.
        Cigarettes, alcohol and stroke.
        N Engl J Med. 1996; 315: 1087-1090
        • Davis J.W.
        • Shelton L.
        • Eigenberg D.A.
        • Hignite C.E.
        • Watanabe I.
        Effects of tobacco and non tobacco cigarette smoking on endothelium and platelets.
        Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1985; 37: 529-533
        • Davis J.W.
        • Arnold J.
        Time course of some effects of cigarette smoking on platelets.
        J Intern Med. 1992; 231: 3136
        • Hung J.
        • Lam J.Y.
        • Lacoste L.
        • Letchacovski G.
        Cigarette smoking acutely increases platelet thrombus formation in patients with coronary artery diseases taking aspirin.
        Circulation. 1995; 92: 2432-2436
        • Blache D.
        • Bouthillier D.
        • Davignon J.
        Acute influence of smoking on platelet behavior, endothelium and plasma lipids and normalization by aspirin.
        Atherosclerosis. 1992; 93: 179-188
        • Wennmalm A.
        • Benthin G.
        • Granström E.F.
        • Persson L.
        • Winell S.
        Maintained hyperexcretion of thromboxane A2 metabolite in healthy young cigarette smokers.
        Clin Physiol. 1993; 13: 257-264
        • Carlsson I.
        • Wennemaen A.
        Platelet aggregability in smoking and nonsmoking subjects.
        Clin Physiol. 1983; 3: 565-571
        • Davis J.W.
        • Davis R.F.
        Prevention of cigarette smoking-induced platelet aggregate formation by aspirin.
        Arch Intern Med. 1981; 41: 206-207
        • Toth L.
        • Szenasi P.
        • Jambor G.
        • Kammerer L.
        • Romics L.
        Platelet function in male diabetics with and without macrovascular complications.
        Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1992; 15: 143-148
        • Mori T.A.
        • Vandogen R.
        • Douglas A.J.
        • McCulloch R.K.
        • Burke V.
        Differential effect of aspirin on platelet aggregation in IDDM.
        Diabetes. 1992; 41: 261-266
        • Bach R.
        • Jung F.
        • Kohsiek I.
        • Ozbek C.
        • Spitzer S.
        • Scheller B.
        • Dyckmanns J.
        • Schieffer H.
        Factors affecting the restenosis rate after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty.
        Thromb Res. 1994; 74: S55-S67
        • Fink R.
        • Hutton R.A.
        Changes in blood platelets of alcoholics during alcohol withdrawal.
        J Clin Pathol. 1983; 36: 337-340
        • Renaud S.C.
        • Ruf J.C.
        Effect of alcohol on platelet functions.
        Clin Chim Acta. 1996; 246: 77-89
        • Cederbaum A.L.
        Introduction.
        Free Radic Biol Med. 1989; 7: 537-539
        • Ciavatti M.
        • Blache D.
        • Renand S.
        Hormonal contraceptive increases plasma lipid peroxides in female rats.
        Atherosclerosis. 1989; 9: 84-89
        • Van Kooten F.
        • Ciabattoni G.
        • Patrono C.
        • Schmitz P.
        • Van Gijn J.
        • Kondstraal P.J.
        Evidence for episodic platelet activation in acute ischemic stroke.
        Stroke. 1994; 25: 278-281
        • Grotemeyer K.H.
        The platelet reactivity test. A useful “byproduct” of the bloodsampling procedure?.
        Thromb Res. 1991; 61: 423-431
        • Grotemeyer K.H.
        Effects of acetylsalicylic acid in stroke patients.
        Thromb Res. 1991; 63: 587-593
        • Grotemeyer K.H.
        • Scharafinski H.W.
        • Husstedt I.W.
        Two year followup of aspirin responder and aspirin nonresponder.
        Thromb Res. 1993; 71: 397-403
        • Chang W.C.
        • Hsu F.L.
        Inhibition of platelet aggregation and arachidonate metabolism in platelets by procyanidins.
        Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1989; 38: 181-188
        • Chang W.C.
        • Hsu F.L.
        Inhibition of platelet activation and endothelial cell injury by polyphenolic compounds isolated from Lonicera japonica.
        Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1992; 45: 307-312
        • Rohdewald P.
        Pycnogenol.
        in: Rice-Evans C.A. Packer L. Flavonoids in Health and Disease. Marcel Decker Inc, New York1997: 406-420
      1. Rūve HJ. Identification and Quantification of the ingredients of the bark of the maritime pine. Ph.D. Thesis, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, Münster, Germany, 1988.

        • Biazso G.
        • Gaspar R.
        • Gabor M.
        • Ruve H.J.
        • Rohdewald P.
        ACE inhibition and hypotensive effect of a procyanidins containing extract from the bark of Pinus pinaster Sol.
        Pharm Pharmacol Lett. 1996; 6: 8-11
        • Fitzpatrick D.F.
        • Bing B.
        Endothelium dependent vascular effects of Pycnogenol.
        J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1998; 32: 509-515
        • Minuz P.
        • Lechi C.
        • Gaino S.
        • Bonapace S.
        • Fontana L.
        • Gabin U.
        • Paluani F.
        • Cominacini L.
        • Zatti M.
        • Lechi A.
        Oxidized LDL and reduction of the antiaggregating activity of nitric oxide derived from endothelial cells.
        Thromb Haemost. 1995; 74: 1175-1179
        • Buerke M.
        • Pittrof W.
        • Meyer J.
        • Darus H.
        Aspirin therapy.
        Am Heart J. 1995; 130: 465-472
        • Gow J.A.
        • Ebbeling L.
        • Gerrard J.M.
        The effect of regular and entericcoated aspirin on bleeding time, thromboxane and prostacyclin.
        Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1993; 49: 515-520
        • Gabor M.
        • Engi E.
        • Sonkodi S.
        Influence of water-soluble flavone derivatives on the capillary resistance in spontaneous hypertensive rats.
        Phlebologie. 1993; 22: 178-182
        • Schmidtke J.
        • Schoop W.
        The treatment of the hydrostatic edema with drugs.
        Swiss Med. 1984; 6: 68-69
        • Feine-Haake G.
        A new therapy for venous diseases with 3,3′4,4′5,7 hexadihydroflavan.
        Z Allgemeinmed. 1975; 51: 839-840
        • Watson R.R.
        Reduction of cardiovascular disease risk factors by French maritime pine bark extract.
        Cardiovas Rev Report. June. 1999; in press