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Daily Hospitalization Costs in Patients with Deep Vein Thrombosis or Pulmonary Embolism Treated with Anticoagulant Therapy

Open AccessPublished:December 04, 2014DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2014.11.024

      Highlights

      • This study quantified the daily hospitalization costs in DVT and PE patients
      • Costs were highest during the first 3 days and stabilized on the third day
      • Patients with an ICU stay during their hospitalization had higher costs
      • DVT patients with an ICU stay had higher costs than corresponding patients with PE
      • Any intervention that changes the LOS could significantly affect hospitalization costs

      Abstract

      Background

      Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), affects about 900,000 persons in the United States each year.

      Objectives

      To quantify the progression of daily hospitalization costs among DVT and PE patients.

      Patients/Methods

      A retrospective claims analysis was conducted from 01/01/2009 to 03/01/2013 using the Premier Perspective Comparative Hospital Database. Patients ≥18 years of age with an admitting/primary diagnosis of DVT or PE and receiving anticoagulant therapy were identified. Treatment patterns, mean daily costs, and total hospitalization costs were reported for the DVT and PE populations. Comparisons of mean daily costs with those of the previous day were presented to identify statistical cost differences between hospitalization days.

      Results

      A total of 28,953 and 35,550 patients were identified with a diagnosis of DVT and PE, respectively. The daily costs were at their highest during the first three days for DVT patients at $2,321, $1,875, and $1,558, respectively. Similar results were found for PE patients with costs at their highest in the first three days, at $2,981, $2,034, and $1,564, respectively. Among the DVT and PE populations, mean daily costs were $1,594 and $1,735, respectively, and daily hospitalization costs became stable on the third day of the hospitalization (standardized differences <10%).

      Conclusions

      Daily hospitalization costs of patients with an admitting/primary diagnosis of DVT or PE were high in the first days and became stable on the third day. It was further suggested that any change in the LOS could significantly affect hospitalization costs.

      Keywords

      Introduction

      Venous thromboembolism (VTE), which includes deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE), affects about 900,000 persons in the United States each year and about 300,000 of these persons die from this disease [
      • Heit J.A.
      • Cohen A.T.
      • Anderson F.A.
      Estimated Annual Number of Incident and Recurrent, Non- Fatal and Fatal VenousThromboembolism (VTE) Events in the US.
      ]. In addition, the number of adults with VTE in the United States is estimated to double to 1.82 million by 2050 [
      • Deitelzweig S.B.
      • Johnson B.H.
      • Lin J.
      • Schulman K.L.
      Prevalence of clinical venous thromboembolism in the USA: current trends and future projections.
      ]. VTE is a costly disease with an estimated annual cumulative cost ranging from $4.9 to $7.5 billion for DVT and $8.5 to $19.8 billion for PE [
      • Mahan C.E.
      • Borrego M.E.
      • Woersching A.L.
      • Federici R.
      • Downey R.
      • Tiongson J.
      • et al.
      Venous thromboembolism: annualised United States models for total, hospital-acquired and preventable costs utilising long-term attack rates.
      ]. Study results based on large US databases have reported a cost ranging from $3,000 to $9,500 for first VTE hospitalization [
      • Ruppert A.
      • Steinle T.
      • Lees M.
      Economic burden of venous thromboembolism: a systematic review.
      ]. Hospitalization costs are the main cost driver for VTE patients, contributing about half of the total annualized costs per patient [
      • Lefebvre P.
      • Laliberté F.
      • Nutescu E. a
      • Duh M.S.
      • LaMori J.
      • Bookhart B.K.
      • et al.
      All-cause and potentially disease-related health care costs associated with venous thromboembolism in commercial, Medicare, and Medicaid beneficiaries.
      ].
      Historically, the standard of care for the treatment of VTE has been the initial administration of a short acting anticoagulant as a bridging agent (e.g., heparin or low molecular weight heparin) initiated in combination with a vitamin K antagonist (VKA; e.g., warfarin), then followed by VKA therapy alone for subacute and chronic therapy [
      • Kearon C.
      • Akl E. a
      • Comerota A.J.
      • Prandoni P.
      • Bounameaux H.
      • Goldhaber S.Z.
      • et al.
      Antithrombotic therapy for VTE disease: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines.
      ]. Recently, target-specific oral anticoagulants have been evaluated and introduced for the treatment of DVT and/or PE. Treatment with target-specific oral anticoagulants may have the potential to reduce hospitalization costs compared to treatment with VKA by reducing the hospital length of stay (LOS) since routine laboratory monitoring and injectable bridging therapy are not required [
      • Fonseca E.
      • Walker D.R.
      • Hill J.
      • Hess G.P.
      Abstract 282: Dabigatran Etexilate is Associated with Shorter Hospital Length of Stay Compared to Warfarin in Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation.
      ,
      • Laliberté F.
      • Pilon D.
      • Raut M.K.
      • Nelson W.W.
      • Olson W.H.
      • Germain G.
      • et al.
      Hospital length of stay: is rivaroxaban associated with shorter inpatient stay compared to warfarin among patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation?.
      ,
      • Van Bellen B.
      • Bamber L.
      • Correa de Carvalho F.
      • Prins M.
      • Wang M.
      • Lensing A.W.
      Reduction in the length of stay with rivaroxaban as a single-drug regimen for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.
      ,
      • Cowper P.A.
      • Pan W.
      • Anstrom K.
      • Stafford J.
      • Lopes R.
      • Davidson-Ray L.
      • et al.
      Apixaban reduces hospitalization in patients with atrial fibrillation: an analysis of the effect of Apixaban therapy on resource use in the Apixaban for reduction in stroke and other thromboembolic events in atrial fibrillation trial.
      ].
      To our knowledge, the progression of daily hospitalization costs has not been studied in a population of DVT and PE patients. Quantifying daily costs instead of only total hospitalization costs allows for a better interpretation of the impact of various therapies or strategies that could prolong or shorten LOS. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to quantify the progression of daily hospitalization costs among patients with a primary diagnosis of DVT or PE treated with anticoagulation therapy.

      Methods

      Data Source

      This study was based on data from the Premier Perspective Comparative Hospital Database covering January 2009 to March 2013. Premier is the largest hospital-based database in the United States and contains detailed information for more than 45 million inpatient discharges from over 600 acute-care hospitals across all US regions. Data elements include patient demographic characteristics, primary and secondary diagnoses for every hospitalization as well as all procedures, and other department activities. In comparison to centralized health care claims recorded by insurance companies, patients’ medical information available in the Premier database comes from records collected for billing purposes at the hospital level. Costs are collected by Premier from hospital cost accounting systems and are reported for each billing record during a hospital stay. Premier data are de-identified and fully compliant with all HIPAA privacy and security requirements to protect participant anonymity and confidentiality. Institutional review board (IRB) approval and informed consent were not required for this study.

      Study Design

      A retrospective cohort design was used to evaluate the daily progression of hospitalization costs for patients diagnosed with DVT or PE. Patients included in the analysis had to have at least one admitting/primary diagnosis of DVT (ICD-9-CM: 451.1x, 451.2x, 453.xx) or PE (ICD-9-CM: 415.1x) during a hospitalization. Patients who had both a DVT and a PE diagnosis were included in the PE cohort. In addition, patients had to be at least 18 years of age as of the date of the hospital admission and had to have received at least one anticoagulant treatment during their hospitalization. The observation period for the analysis corresponded to the patients’ hospital stay. In each cohort, a sub-analysis was conducted on a sample of patients with an intensive care unit (ICU) stay during their hospitalization.

      Study Endpoints

      The primary endpoint of the study was the progression of costs per hospitalization day and the mean total hospitalization costs. Stratification of the hospitalization costs into mutually exclusive categories (i.e., room and board, nursing, surgery, supply, laboratory, pharmacy, and other costs) was an exploratory endpoint. In addition, pharmacy costs were further stratified into subgroups of costs depending on medication type.

      Statistical Analysis

      Descriptive statistics were used to summarize patients’ characteristics evaluated at the index hospital admission. LOS and treatment characteristics (e.g., number of different medications used, days to anticoagulant therapy administration) were also evaluated during the hospitalization. For all descriptive statistics, means and medians (±SDs) were reported for continuous variables, while frequencies and percentages were reported for categorical variables.
      Mean hospitalization costs were reported for each day for the first 7 days, and mean daily costs were reported for days ranging from day 8 to day 14 and from day 15 to day 30. Overall mean daily hospitalization costs per patient as well as mean total hospitalization costs were reported. Using standardized differences, statistical comparisons were made in order to assess the day of the hospitalization where the costs became stable (i.e., standardized difference ≤10%). The standardized difference was calculated by dividing the absolute difference in the mean costs of two consecutive days by their pooled standard deviation (SD). The pooled SD was calculated as the square root of the average of the squared SDs [
      • Cohen J.
      Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences.
      ,
      • Normand S.T.
      • Landrum M.B.
      • Guadagnoli E.
      • Ayanian J.Z.
      • Ryan T.J.
      • Cleary P.D.
      • et al.
      Validating recommendations for coronary angiography following acute myocardial infarction in the elderly: a matched analysis using propensity scores.
      ,
      • Austin P.C.
      Using the Standardized Difference to Compare the Prevalence of a Binary Variable Between Two Groups in Observational Research.
      ]. All costs were adjusted to the 2013 $US value based on the medical care component of the Consumer Price Index.

      Results

      Fig. 1 presents the study sample selection. A total of 66,982 patients had an admitting/primary for DVT or PE during their hospitalization, and 64,503 were eligible for the study. There were 35,550 patients identified with a diagnosis of PE. The remaining 28,953 patients were identified with a diagnosis of DVT (Fig. 1). The mean (SD) age of the DVT cohort was 61.5 (18.2) years and 48.8% were female. In the PE cohort, 50.3% of patients were female and the mean (SD) age was 60.0 (17.4) years (Table 1).
      Table 1Patient Demographics and Clinical Characteristics of DVT and PE Patients.
      CharacteristicsDVTPE
      (N = 28,953)(N = 35,550)
      Demographics
      Evaluated during index hospitalization stay.
       Age, mean [median] (SD)61.5 [62.0] (18.2)60.0 [61.0] (17.4)
       Gender, female, n (%)14,115 (48.8%)17,864 (50.3%)
      Marital status
      Evaluated during index hospitalization stay.
      , n (%)
       Married11,997 (41.4%)15,923 (44.8%)
       Single13,463 (46.5%)16,167 (45.5%)
       Other/unknown3,493 (12.1%)3,460 (9.7%)
      Ethnicity
      Evaluated during index hospitalization stay.
      , n (%)
       White19,111 (66.0%)23,696 (66.7%)
       Black4,163 (14.4%)5,598 (15.7%)
       Other/Unknown5,679 (19.6%)6,256 (17.6%)
      Primary payer type
      Evaluated during index hospitalization stay.
      , n (%)
       Medicare13,691 (47.3%)15,477 (43.5%)
       Managed Care7,888 (27.2%)10,270 (28.9%)
       Commercial indemnity1,902 (6.6%)2,901 (8.2%)
       Medicaid2,028 (7.0%)2,525 (7.1%)
       Other/Unknown3,444 (11.9%)4,377 (12.3%)
      Region of hospital
      Evaluated during index hospitalization stay.
      , n (%)
       East north central3,463 (12.0%)4,544 (12.8%)
       East south central1,610 (5.6%)1,767 (5.0%)
       Middle Atlantic6,370 (22.0%)6,731 (18.9%)
       Mountain1,106 (3.8%)2,297 (6.5%)
       New England614 (2.1%)935 (2.6%)
       Pacific2,518 (8.7%)4,361 (12.3%)
       South Atlantic8,219 (28.4%)9,634 (27.1%)
       West north central1,783 (6.2%)2,383 (6.7%)
       West south central3,270 (11.3%)2,898 (8.2%)
      Hospital characteristics
      Evaluated during index hospitalization stay.
      , n (%)
       Urban (vs. rural)26,385 (91.1%)32,293 (90.8%)
       Teaching11,035 (38.1%)14,050 (39.5%)
       Number of beds
      < 2507,556 (26.1%)9,156 (25.8%)
      250-50012,311 (42.5%)15,938 (44.8%)
      500-7506,660 (23.0%)7,225 (20.3%)
      > 7502,426 (8.4%)3,231 (9.1%)
      Admitting physician specialty
      Evaluated during index hospitalization stay.
      , n (%)
       Cardiology693 (2.4%)1,313 (3.7%)
       Internal medicine (Internist)18,405 (63.6%)23,606 (66.4%)
       Family/General medicine4,018 (13.9%)4,078 (11.5%)
       Surgery general1,225 (4.2%)321 (0.9%)
       Other/Unknown4,612 (15.9%)6,232 (17.5%)
      Admission source
      Evaluated during index hospitalization stay.
      , n (%)
       Physician referral15,653 (54.1%)18,047 (50.8%)
       Clinical referral1,401 (4.8%)1,237 (3.5%)
       Transfer from hospital1,081 (3.7%)2,480 (7.0%)
       Other source10,818 (37.4%)13,786 (38.8%)
      Admission site
      Evaluated during index hospitalization stay.
      , n (%)
       Emergency room19,877 (68.7%)23,143 (65.1%)
       ntensive care unit1,669 (5.8%)7,132 (20.1%)
       Other site7,407 (25.6%)5,275 (14.8%)
      Degree of severity
      Evaluated during index hospitalization stay.
      Severity level for the admission diagnosis-related group, as defined by 3M’s algorithm (APR-DRG grouper code).
      , n (%)
       Minor7,556 (26.1%)7,203 (20.3%)
       Moderate10,715 (37.0%)13,490 (37.9%)
       Major9,241 (31.9%)10,628 (29.9%)
       Extreme1,441 (5.0%)4,229 (11.9%)
      Year of index date
      Evaluated during index hospitalization stay.
      , n (%)
       20099,148 (31.6%)10,203 (28.7%)
       20105,999 (20.7%)7,131 (20.1%)
       20116,042 (20.9%)7,922 (22.3%)
       20126,548 (22.6%)8,588 (24.2%)
       20131,216 (4.2%)1,706 (4.8%)
      Notes:
      SD: standard deviation, DVT: deep vein thrombosis, PE: pulmonary embolism.
      1 Evaluated during index hospitalization stay.
      2 Severity level for the admission diagnosis-related group, as defined by 3 M’s algorithm (APR-DRG grouper code).
      Table 2 presents LOS and treatment characteristics of both cohorts. The mean [median] (SD) LOS for the DVT and PE cohort was 4.7 [4] (4.5) days and 5.4 [5] (4.6) days, respectively. Among cohorts, 2,857 (9.9%) of DVT patients and 8,587 (24.2%) of PE patients had an ICU stay during their hospitalization (Table 2). Patients in both cohorts were found to take an average of seven different medications per day, with a medication dose burden of an average of 13 doses administered per day (Table 2). For both cohorts, the mean time from the hospital admission to the administration of an anticoagulant was 1.3 days (Table 2).
      Table 2Length of Stay and Treatment Characteristics of DVT and PE Patients.
      Treatment Characteristics
      Evaluated during index hospitalization stay.
      DVTPE
      (N = 28,953)(N = 35,550)
      Length of stay, mean [median] (SD)4.7 [4] (4.5)5.4 [5] (4.6)
      Percentage of patients with an ICU stay, n (%)2,857 (9.9%)8,587 (24.2%)
      Number of days in ICU, mean [median] (SD)
       Overall population0.3 [0] (1.6)0.8 [0] (2.4)
       Among patients with an ICU stay3.0 [2] (4.1)3.3 [2] (3.9)
      Medication used, mean [median] (SD)
       Number of different medications6.6 [6] (4.0)7.2 [7] (4.2)
       Number of doses per day
      Oral9.6 [8.0] (21.9)9.7 [8.2] (7.2)
      Injections3.3 [3] (2.4)3.7 [3] (2.8)
      Days to anticoagulant administration, mean [median] (SD)1.3 [1] (0.9)1.3 [1] (1.0)
      First administration of anticoagulant therapy on day 3 or later, n (%)1,007 (3.5%)1,246 (3.5%)
      Anticoagulant agent(s) administered on the first day of anticoagulant therapy
      The Premier Perspective Comparative Hospital Database does not provide the anticoagulant administration sequence within the same day. Therefore, if two or more agents were administered the same day it was not possible to identify which one was administered first.
      , n (%)
       Warfarin13,587 (46.9%)16,029 (45.1%)
       Unfractionated heparin10,611 (36.6%)16,166 (45.5%)
       Low molecular weight heparins18,044 (62.3%)20,339 (57.2%)
       Other1,203 (4.2%)1,314 (3.7%)
      Notes:
      SD: standard deviation, DVT: deep vein thrombosis, PE: pulmonary embolism, ICU: intensive care unit.
      1 Evaluated during index hospitalization stay.
      2 The Premier Perspective Comparative Hospital Database does not provide the anticoagulant administration sequence within the same day. Therefore, if two or more agents were administered the same day it was not possible to identify which one was administered first.
      In the DVT cohort, the mean (SD) daily costs were $1,594 (1,346) with costs ranging from $2,321 (2,476) to $1,263 (1,967) in the first seven days, the most expensive being the admission day and the least expensive being the sixth day (Table 3a). The costs stabilized on the third day of the hospitalization (mean [SD]: $1,558 [2,245]), since the costs of the fourth day (mean [SD]: $1,398 [2,180]) were not statistically different than those of the third day (standardized difference 7.2%) in the DVT group. In the PE cohort, the mean (SD) daily costs were $1,735 (1,211) with costs ranging from $2,981 (2,602) to $1,276 (1,512) in the first seven days. As in the DVT cohort, the most expensive day was the admission day, while the sixth day was the least expensive.
      Table 3aDaily Hospitalization Costs of DVT and PE Patients.
      All costsRoom and board costs
      Cost stratifications were generated from the standardized charges master codes categories of the billing information included in the Premier Perspective Comparative Hospital database.
      Nursing costs
      Cost stratifications were generated from the standardized charges master codes categories of the billing information included in the Premier Perspective Comparative Hospital database.
      Surgery costs
      Cost stratifications were generated from the standardized charges master codes categories of the billing information included in the Premier Perspective Comparative Hospital database.
      Supply costs
      Cost stratifications were generated from the standardized charges master codes categories of the billing information included in the Premier Perspective Comparative Hospital database.
      Laboratory costs
      Cost stratifications were generated from the standardized charges master codes categories of the billing information included in the Premier Perspective Comparative Hospital database.
      Pharmacy costs
      Cost stratifications were generated from the standardized charges master codes categories of the billing information included in the Premier Perspective Comparative Hospital database.
      Other costs
      Day(s)NMean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)
      DVT patients128,953$2,321 (2,476)$942 (970)$28 (103)$84 (607)$127 (807)$196 (254)$185 (552)$759 (917)
      228,612$1,875 (2,507)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $822 (731)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $14 (110)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $127 (651)$199 (911)$152 (231)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $235 (689)$326 (764)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      325,222$1,558 (2,245)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $752 (670)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $12 (108)$103 (565)$159 (821)$99 (162)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $195 (652)$238 (712)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      420,567$1,398 (2,180)$715 (693)$12 (99)$90 (722)$123 (744)$80 (134)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $177 (670)$200 (604)
      515,892$1,297 (1,970)$688 (716)$11 (94)$73 (516)$106 (700)$72 (103)$170 (661)$177 (549)
      611,725$1,263 (1,967)$675 (748)$11 (95)$67 (498)$103 (779)$71 (112)$163 (542)$173 (521)
      78,326$1,274 (2,226)$669 (850)$12 (128)$73 (778)$98 (650)$73 (118)$160 (581)$188 (659)
      8-14
      Calculated as the average of the mean daily cost of the days included in the period.
      5,732$1,454 (118)$746 (58)$14 (1)$88 (18)$98 (14)$75 (4)$210 (29)$222 (21)
      15-30
      Calculated as the average of the mean daily cost of the days included in the period.
      832$1,733 (183)$887 (77)$17 (4)$75 (38)$114 (70)$82 (9)$288 (48)$269 (41)
      >30
      Calculated as the average of the mean daily cost of the days included in the period.
      82$1,556 (1,352)$719 (467)$10 (80)$69 (200)$136 (700)$75 (77)$309 (378)$238 (318)
      Overall
      Calculated as the mean daily costs per patient.
      28,953$1,594 (1,346)$714 (500)$15 (80)$87 (353)$131 (421)$121 (111)$179 (357)$347 (439)
      Total
      Calculated as the mean total hospitalization costs per patient.
      28,953$9,407 (12,731)$4,422 (5,835)$87 (676)$522 (1,815)$764 (2,261)$644 (763)$1,115 (3,437)$1,852 (2,809)
      PE patients135,550$2,981 (2,602)$1,118 (986)$47 (146)$61 (500)$107 (754)$293 (322)$282 (890)$1,071 (1,088)
      235,163$2,034 (1,971)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $1,010 (803)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $22 (145)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $62 (473)$111 (563)$198 (274)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $229 (656)$401 (667)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      332,613$1,564 (1,682)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $886 (745)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $17 (124)$41 (326)$80 (430)$117 (189)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $178 (417)$244 (922)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      427,969$1,421 (1,479)$829 (716)$16 (119)$38 (339)$72 (510)$94 (143)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $169 (359)$205 (457)
      523,003$1,335 (1,702)$781 (747)$15 (116)$31 (257)$65 (436)$85 (221)$159 (415)$198 (1,005)
      618,000$1,276 (1,512)$744 (819)$14 (120)$31 (272)$65 (478)$79 (116)$154 (424)$189 (439)
      713,251$1,284 (2,193)$731 (905)$14 (120)$35 (335)$63 (390)$80 (137)$168 (1,465)$193 (476)
      8-14
      Calculated as the average of the mean daily cost of the days included in the period.
      9,420$1,533 (148)$828 (71)$17 (1)$45 (10)$82 (10)$82 (4)$221 (40)$258 (28)
      15-30
      Calculated as the average of the mean daily cost of the days included in the period.
      1,428$2,109 (164)$1,099 (78)$19 (3)$58 (20)$92 (33)$95 (8)$389 (67)$357 (40)
      >30
      Calculated as the average of the mean daily cost of the days included in the period.
      165$1,694 (1,136)$852 (565)$19 (115)$36 (124)$103 (339)$70 (59)$284 (549)$329 (390)
      Overall
      Calculated as the mean daily costs per patient.
      35,550$1,735 (1,211)$830 (516)$23 (104)$39 (201)$78 (371)$152 (130)$194 (376)$419 (514)
      Total
      Calculated as the mean total hospitalization costs per patient.
      35,550$11,486 (14,784)$5,778 (7,462)$142 (1,083)$293 (1,227)$551 (1,819)$895 (908)$1,346 (4,967)$2,480 (4,340)
      Notes
      SD: standard deviation, DVT: deep vein thrombosis, PE: pulmonary embolism.
      low asterisk Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      1 Cost stratifications were generated from the standardized charges master codes categories of the billing information included in the Premier Perspective Comparative Hospital database.
      2 Calculated as the average of the mean daily cost of the days included in the period.
      3 Calculated as the mean daily costs per patient.
      4 Calculated as the mean total hospitalization costs per patient.
      In the PE cohort, daily costs also stabilized on the third day after admission (mean [SD]: $1,564 [1,682]), as the mean (SD) costs of the fourth day ($1,421 [1,479]) were not statistically different from those on the third day (standardized difference 9.0%; Table 3a). Among the stratified costs, the room and board costs were the biggest cost category accounting for 40% to 53% of the total costs of the DVT cohort and 38% to 59% of the costs of the PE cohort, depending on the day (Fig. 2, Fig. 3). The mean (SD) total hospitalization costs were $9,407 (12,731) in the DVT cohort and $11,486 (14,784) in the PE cohort (Table 3a).
      Figure thumbnail gr2
      Fig. 2Daily Hospitalization Costs of DVT Patients Stratified by Cost Categories during the First 14 Days.
      DVT: deep vein thrombosis; N: Number of patients.
      Figure thumbnail gr3
      Fig. 3Daily Hospitalization Costs of PE Patients Stratified by Cost Categories during the First 14 Days.
      PE: pulmonary embolism; N: Number of patients.
      Table 3b presents costs for DVT and PE patients that had an ICU stay during their hospitalization. Mean (SD) daily costs for these subgroups were higher than those of the entire cohort with $3,255 (2,378) and $2,340 (1,827) for DVT and PE patients, respectively. For both sub-samples, daily costs stabilized on the fifth day compared to the third day in the whole cohort (standardized difference DVT: 4.5%; PE: 5.2%; Table 3b). The mean (SD) total hospitalization costs for DVT patients with an ICU stay were 2.5 times higher than those of the overall population at $24,692 (26,498). For PE patients with an ICU stay, the mean (SD) total hospitalization costs were $19,901 (24,506).
      Table 3bDaily Hospitalization Costs of DVT and PE Patients with an ICU Stay.
      All costsRoom and board costs
      Cost stratifications were generated from the standardized charge master code categories of the billing information included in the Premier PerspectiveTM Comparative Hospital database.
      Nursing costs
      Cost stratifications were generated from the standardized charge master code categories of the billing information included in the Premier PerspectiveTM Comparative Hospital database.
      Surgery costs
      Cost stratifications were generated from the standardized charge master code categories of the billing information included in the Premier PerspectiveTM Comparative Hospital database.
      Supply costs
      Cost stratifications were generated from the standardized charge master code categories of the billing information included in the Premier PerspectiveTM Comparative Hospital database.
      Laboratory costs
      Cost stratifications were generated from the standardized charge master code categories of the billing information included in the Premier PerspectiveTM Comparative Hospital database.
      Pharmacy costs
      Cost stratifications were generated from the standardized charge master code categories of the billing information included in the Premier PerspectiveTM Comparative Hospital database.
      Other costs
      Day(s)NMean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)
      DVT patients with an ICU stay12,857$4,371 (4,771)$1,369 (942)$45 (161)$397 (1,266)$565 (1,501)$257 (317)$516 (1,264)$1,223 (1,787)
      22,843$4,699 (4,956)$1,345 (841)$34 (200)$588 (1,400)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $837 (1,813)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $230 (289)$711 (1,623)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $955 (1,558)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      32,733$3,695 (4,411)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $1,191 (902)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $31 (210)$444 (1,193)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $658 (1,747)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $164 (190)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $502 (1,187)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $705 (1,493)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      42,445$2,907 (4,325)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $1,075 (842)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $26 (170)$350 (1,763)$405 (1,376)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $135 (192)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $397 (1,291)$519 (1,174)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      52,133$2,352 (3,328)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $972 (756)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $19 (135)$233 (995)$317 (1,286)$111 (127)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $319 (888)$381 (864)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      61,785$2,206 (3,180)$947 (862)$19 (129)$194 (894)$293 (1,187)$103 (126)$310 (1,007)$340 (720)
      71,467$2,110 (3,865)$933 (769)$23 (242)$204 (1,711)$214 (973)$105 (136)$301 (1,191)$330 (1,107)
      8-14
      Calculated as the average of the mean daily cost of the days included in the period.
      1,191$1,988 (97)$918 (54)$16 (2)$165 (32)$162 (32)$97 (5)$308 (37)$322 (32)
      15-30
      Calculated as the average of the mean daily cost of the days included in the period.
      285$2,078 (274)$1,002 (75)$14 (5)$99 (57)$188 (140)$98 (9)$341 (54)$335 (52)
      >30
      Calculated as the average of the mean daily cost of the days included in the period.
      43$1,777 (1,715)$744 (550)$17 (111)$113 (267)$231 (961)$89 (89)$276 (270)$307 (387)
      Overall
      Calculated as the mean daily costs per patient.
      2,857$3,255 (2,378)$1,064 (464)$26 (125)$377 (734)$509 (769)$158 (115)$447 (651)$674 (841)
      Total
      Calculated as the mean total hospitalization costs per patient.
      2,857$24,692 (26,498)$9,096 (11,465)$209 (1,281)$2,483 (4,070)$3,345 (4,532)$1,222 (1,533)$3,484 (7,027)$4,853 (6,224)
      PE patients with an ICU stay18,587$4,354 (4,085)$1,618 (1,059)$60 (196)$174 (843)$250 (1,396)$342 (362)$560 (1,648)$1,351 (1,620)
      28,463$3,106 (3,023)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $1,445 (941)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $36 (210)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $155 (794)$236 (957)$260 (336)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $388 (1,153)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $586 (940)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      38,203$2,218 (2,054)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $1,222 (926)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $26 (173)$85 (490)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $138 (586)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $155 (228)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $251 (614)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $341 (655)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      47,712$1,935 (2,104)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $1,069 (843)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $23 (165)$74 (508)$122 (863)$122 (173)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $226 (507)$298 (609)
      56,931$1,700 (1,719)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $965 (824)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $20 (155)$49 (343)$93 (450)$104 (132)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $204 (560)$265 (526)
      65,915$1,607 (1,838)$904 (894)$19 (161)$48 (382)$92 (640)$95 (123)$196 (564)$253 (525)
      74,762$1,642 (3,110)$887 (985)$18 (148)$55 (476)$85 (440)$97 (176)$234 (2,389)$266 (565)
      8-14
      Calculated as the average of the mean daily cost of the days included in the period.
      3,695$1,862 (134)$976 (62)$19 (1)$62 (18)$109 (19)$95 (4)$278 (41)$323 (29)
      15-30
      Calculated as the average of the mean daily cost of the days included in the period.
      875$2,328 (159)$1,184 (75)$21 (3)$60 (23)$108 (42)$102 (10)$451 (74)$401 (43)
      >30
      Calculated as the average of the mean daily cost of the days included in the period.
      131$1,799 (1,126)$893 (562)$24 (129)$28 (63)$102 (333)$76 (62)$310 (604)$366 (414)
      Overall
      Calculated as the mean daily costs per patient.
      8,587$2,340 (1,827)$1,100 (568)$29 (139)$86 (303)$147 (670)$170 (145)$299 (648)$508 (674)
      Total
      Calculated as the mean total hospitalization costs per patient.
      8,587$19,901 (24,506)$9,771 (12,067)$239 (1,862)$734 (2,093)$1,206 (3,142)$1,313 (1,341)$2,666 (9,267)$3,973 (5,507)
      Notes:
      SD: standard deviation, DVT: deep vein thrombosis, PE: pulmonary embolism.
      low asterisk Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      1 Cost stratifications were generated from the standardized charge master code categories of the billing information included in the Premier PerspectiveTM Comparative Hospital database.
      2 Calculated as the average of the mean daily cost of the days included in the period.
      3 Calculated as the mean daily costs per patient.
      4 Calculated as the mean total hospitalization costs per patient.
      The mean daily total hospitalization costs for DVT patients that had an ICU stay (N = 2,857) were qualitatively higher compared to those for PE patients that had an ICU stay (N = 8,587), especially for surgery and supply costs (Table 3b). The mean (SD) surgery costs for DVT patients were $2,483 (4,070) compared to only $734 (2,093) for PE patients. A breakdown of mean surgery costs for DVT patients showed that $1,625 was related to cardiovascular artery and vein surgeries and $737 to surgery time (data not shown). The corresponding mean costs for PE patients were $370 and $267, respectively. Mean (SD) supply costs were also higher for DVT compared to PE patients at $3,345 (4,532) and $1,206 (3,142), respectively. Supply cost components for DVT patients revealed that $2,477 were for medical and surgical supply costs, while those costs were $792 for PE patients (data not shown).
      Table 4a presents daily pharmacy costs stratified by the top five medications used by DVT and PE patients during their hospitalization. For both cohorts, pharmacy costs were stable during the whole hospital stay. The most expensive day was the second day for DVT patients and the admission day for PE patients. The major component of pharmacy costs was injectable anticoagulant with an average daily cost ranging from $60 to $83 for DVT and PE patients during the first seven days of the hospitalization. Daily pharmacy costs excluding anticoagulants were also expensive; representing around 60% of the daily pharmacy costs and ranging from $97 to $150 for DVT patients and from $85 to $211 for PE patients in the first seven days of the hospital stay (Table 4a).
      Table 4aDaily Hospitalization Pharmacy Costs of DVT and PE Patients.
      All pharmacy costsAnticoagulant costs
      Pharmacy costs stratifications were generated from the standardized charges master codes categories of the billing information included in the Premier Perspective Comparative Hospital database.
      Fibrinolytic costs
      Pharmacy costs stratifications were generated from the standardized charges master codes categories of the billing information included in the Premier Perspective Comparative Hospital database.
      X-ray media costs
      Pharmacy costs stratifications were generated from the standardized charges master codes categories of the billing information included in the Premier Perspective Comparative Hospital database.
      Hospital solution IV costs
      Pharmacy costs stratifications were generated from the standardized charges master codes categories of the billing information included in the Premier Perspective Comparative Hospital database.
      Opioid costs
      Pharmacy costs stratifications were generated from the standardized charges master codes categories of the billing information included in the Premier Perspective Comparative Hospital database.
      Other pharmacy costs
      AllOralInjectable
      Includes heparins and heparin-like agents such as low molecular weight heparin and synthetic heparinoid.
      Day(s)NMean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)
      DVT patients128,953$185 (552)$73 (256)$1.01 (2.40)$71 (254)$39 (408)$19 (130)$8 (27)$4 (14)$41 (182)
      228,612$235 (689)$85 (283)$1.53 (3.06)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $83 (282)$58 (553)$17 (140)$10 (30)$7 (18)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $58 (202)
      325,222$195 (652)$78 (299)$1.54 (2.85)$75 (297)$39 (389)$11 (93)$9 (25)$6 (18)$53 (366)
      420,567$177 (670)$72 (297)$1.57 (3.13)$69 (296)$26 (338)$8 (90)$8 (23)$6 (18)$58 (474)
      515,892$170 (661)$68 (301)$1.53 (3.04)$65 (299)$21 (278)$7 (69)$8 (24)$6 (18)$61 (494)
      611,725$163 (542)$65 (351)$1.48 (3.11)$63 (348)$19 (269)$6 (70)$7 (22)$6 (18)$60 (266)
      78,326$160 (581)$63 (310)$1.46 (3.65)$60 (308)$18 (343)$4 (71)$8 (37)$6 (17)$61 (174)
      8-14
      Calculated as the average of the mean daily cost of the days included in the period.
      5,732$210 (29)$70 (5)$1.31 (0.10)$68 (5)$16 (14)$6 (3)$10 (2)$8 (1)$98 (20)
      15-30
      Calculated as the average of the mean daily cost of the days included in the period.
      832$288 (48)$82 (27)$1.08 (0.20)$77 (29)$2.36 (3.68)$2 (2)$15 (2)$12 (2)$174 (45)
      >30
      Calculated as the average of the mean daily cost of the days included in the period.
      82$309 (378)$43 (104)$1.17 (3.33)$41 (103)$10 (85)$2 (13)$17 (30)$15 (22)$222 (330)
      Overall
      Calculated as the mean daily costs per patient.
      28,953$179 (357)$76 (218)$1.41 (2.16)$73 (217)$32 (214)$11 (49)$7 (18)$5 (14)$48 (145)
      Total528,953$1,115 (3,437)$421 (2,104)$7.93 (14.29)$406 (2,089)$186 (1,240)$61 (298)$51 (193)$36 (135)$361 (1,738)
      PE patients135,550$282 (890)$71 (166)$1.05 (2.43)$70 (165)$79 (790)$48 (185)$12 (34)$6 (16)$66 (268)
      235,163$229 (656)$85 (228)$1.75 (2.90)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $83 (227)$37 (536)$12 (88)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $12 (69)$7 (20)$75 (258)
      332,613$178 (417)$82 (266)$1.77 (3.26)$79 (265)$9 (214)$8 (80)$9 (32)$6 (18)$64 (205)
      427,969$169 (359)$78 (214)$1.81 (3.11)$75 (214)$6 (151)$5 (73)$8 (31)$5 (18)$65 (218)
      523,003$159 (415)$74 (317)$1.79 (3.51)$72 (317)$4 (142)$5 (113)$8 (30)$5 (17)$64 (176)
      618,000$154 (424)$67 (324)$1.67 (3.67)$64 (324)$3 (90)$4 (62)$8 (32)$5 (15)$69 (232)
      713,251$168 (1,465)$62 (338)$1.62 (3.60)$60 (337)$3 (94)$2 (28)$8 (39)$5 (16)$87 (1,417)
      8-14
      Calculated as the average of the mean daily cost of the days included in the period.
      9,420$221 (40)$83 (20)$1.39 (0.13)$81 (20)$4 (2)$3 (1)$12 (2)$7 (1)$112 (17)
      15-30
      Calculated as the average of the mean daily cost of the days included in the period.
      1,428$389 (67)$165 (49)$1.20 (0.22)$163 (49)$4.34 (3.02)$3 (4)$22 (5)$10 (1)$186 (26)
      >30
      Calculated as the average of the mean daily cost of the days included in the period.
      165$284 (549)$80 (461)$0.91 (1.74)$79 (461)$2 (8)$1 (10)$20 (61)$9 (19)$172 (207)
      Overall
      Calculated as the mean daily costs per patient.
      35,550$194 (376)$77 (184)$1.64 (2.17)$75 (184)$23 (221)$16 (57)$9 (26)$6 (14)$63 (213)
      Total
      Calculated as the mean total hospitalization costs per patient.
      35,550$1,346 (4,967)$512 (4,044)$10.09 (16.35)$497 (4,043)$139 (1,063)$81 (279)$67 (261)$39 (140)$508 (2,141)
      Notes:
      SD: standard deviation, DVT: deep vein thrombosis, PE: pulmonary embolism, IV: intravenous.
      low asterisk Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      1 Pharmacy costs stratifications were generated from the standardized charges master codes categories of the billing information included in the Premier Perspective Comparative Hospital database.
      2 Includes heparins and heparin-like agents such as low molecular weight heparin and synthetic heparinoid.
      3 Calculated as the average of the mean daily cost of the days included in the period.
      4 Calculated as the mean daily costs per patient.
      5 Calculated as the mean total hospitalization costs per patient.
      Daily pharmacy costs were also reported for the sub-population of DVT and PE patients that experienced an ICU stay during their hospitalization (Table 4b). Pharmacy costs were two times higher for this subgroup than for the whole cohort ranging from $301 to $711 for DVT and from $196 to $560 for PE patients. As opposed to the entire cohort where the daily pharmacy costs were stable during the first seven days of the hospitalization, daily pharmacy costs of patients with an ICU stay were not stable at the beginning of the hospital stay but stabilized on the third day of the hospitalization. The mean (SD) pharmacy costs for DVT patients were $3,484 (7,027) compared to $2,666 (9,267) for PE patients. The breakdown of pharmacy costs for DVT patients showed that $1,430 were for fibrinolytic agents and $637 for injectable anticoagulant agents, while corresponding results were $516 and $770, respectively, for PE patients.
      Table 4bDaily Hospitalization Pharmacy Costs of DVT and PE Patients with an ICU Stay.
      All pharmacy costsAnticoagulant costs
      Pharmacy costs stratifications were generated from the standardized charges master codes categories of the billing information included in the Premier Perspective Comparative Hospital database.
      Fibrinolytic costs
      Pharmacy costs stratifications were generated from the standardized charges master codes categories of the billing information included in the Premier Perspective Comparative Hospital database.
      Xray media costs
      Pharmacy costs stratifications were generated from the standardized charges master codes categories of the billing information included in the Premier Perspective Comparative Hospital database.
      Hospital solution IV costs
      Pharmacy costs stratifications were generated from the standardized charges master codes categories of the billing information included in the Premier Perspective Comparative Hospital database.
      Opioid costs
      Pharmacy costs stratifications were generated from the standardized charges master codes categories of the billing information included in the Premier Perspective Comparative Hospital database.
      Other pharmacy costs
      AllOralInjectable
      Includes heparins and heparin-like agents such as low molecular weight heparin and synthetic heparinoid.
      Day(s)NMean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)
      DVT patients with an ICU stay12,857$516 (1,264)$64 (282)$0.58 (2.15)$62 (282)$314 (1,167)$42 (179)$21 (58)$10 (23)$64 (184)
      22,843$711 (1,623)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $73 (396)$0.97 (2.03)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $69 (393)$435 (1,478)$57 (336)$29 (65)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $16 (31)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $101 (289)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      32,733$502 (1,187)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $75 (379)$1.14 (2.21)$72 (378)$259 (982)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $43 (230)$23 (47)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $13 (26)$89 (250)
      42,445$397 (1,291)$66 (211)$1.23 (2.24)$62 (201)$170 (906)$27 (155)$18 (41)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $11 (24)$105 (859)
      52,133$319 (888)$64 (212)$1.25 (2.41)$61 (205)$110 (648)$20 (143)$16 (46)$11 (23)$97 (471)
      61,785$310 (1,007)$81 (663)$1.24 (2.65)$77 (656)$92 (610)$17 (138)$15 (37)$10 (23)$94 (312)
      71,467$301 (1,191)$87 (547)$1.26 (3.22)$83 (545)$82 (789)$10 (92)$17 (79)$10 (22)$94 (228)
      8-14
      Calculated as the average of the mean daily cost of the days included in the period.
      1,191$308 (37)$97 (15)$1.19 (0.09)$95 (15)$52 (48)$5 (2)$16 (2)$12 (0)$125 (16)
      15-30
      Calculated as the mean daily costs per patient.
      285$341 (54)$126 (55)$0.81 (0.17)$115 (57)$4.36 (10.55)$4 (4)$19 (2)$13 (1)$175 (27)
      >30
      Calculated as the average of the mean daily cost of the days included in the period.
      43$276 (270)$28 (48)$0.67 (1.27)$27 (49)$18 (117)$4 (18)$18 (35)$12 (17)$195 (205)
      Overall
      Calculated as the mean daily costs per patient.
      2,857$447 (651)$71 (250)$1.15 (1.76)$68 (249)$233 (548)$31 (98)$19 (34)$12 (19)$81 (168)
      Total
      Calculated as the mean total hospitalization costs per patient.
      2,857$3,484 (7,027)$665 (3,786)$8.86 (14.88)$637 (3,737)$1,430 (3,359)$208 (679)$166 (468)$99 (220)$917 (3,612)
      PE patients with an ICU stay18,587$560 (1,648)$63 (234)$0.61 (1.73)$62 (234)$311 (1,549)$55 (250)$21 (54)$6 (17)$103 (336)
      28,463$388 (1,153)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $80 (275)$1.40 (2.64)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $78 (275)$131 (996)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $18 (116)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $24 (66)$9 (21)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $128 (470)
      38,203$251 (614)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $86 (382)$1.62 (2.93)$83 (382)$30 (363)
      Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      $11 (130)$18 (55)$7 (19)$99 (242)
      47,712$226 (507)$81 (270)$1.72 (3.06)$78 (269)$19 (256)$7 (108)$15 (52)$7 (18)$97 (303)
      56,931$204 (560)$77 (418)$1.74 (3.22)$74 (418)$9 (206)$6 (130)$13 (46)$6 (18)$92 (262)
      65,915$196 (564)$73 (477)$1.60 (3.04)$71 (477)$7 (148)$5 (78)$13 (46)$6 (17)$92 (225)
      74,762$234 (2,389)$71 (471)$1.52 (2.88)$69 (471)$5 (148)$3 (40)$14 (58)$6 (19)$135 (2,332)
      8-14
      Calculated as the average of the mean daily cost of the days included in the period.
      3,695$278 (41)$104 (28)$1.28 (0.13)$102 (28)$7 (4)$3 (1)$16 (2)$8 (1)$140 (15)
      15-30
      Calculated as the average of the mean daily cost of the days included in the period.
      875$451 (74)$203 (61)$1.05 (0.22)$201 (61)$4.92 (4.67)$3 (5)$25 (6)$10 (2)$204 (22)
      >30
      Calculated as the mean total hospitalization costs per patient.
      131$310 (604)$94 (517)$0.80 (1.49)$93 (517)$2 (9)$2 (11)$23 (68)$8 (13)$181 (213)
      Overall
      Calculated as the mean total hospitalization costs per patient.
      8,587$299 (648)$77 (281)$1.46 (2.03)$74 (281)$84 (412)$17 (65)$16 (36)$6 (14)$100 (376)
      Total
      Calculated as the mean total hospitalization costs per patient.
      8,587$2,666 (9,267)$789 (7,646)$11.67 (19.33)$770 (7,645)$516 (2,009)$110 (410)$147 (472)$62 (208)$1,042 (3,930)
      Notes:
      SD: standard deviation, DVT: deep vein thrombosis, PE: pulmonary embolism, IV: intravenous.
      low asterisk Denotes statistical difference (i.e., standardized difference >10%) to the preceding day.
      1 Pharmacy costs stratifications were generated from the standardized charges master codes categories of the billing information included in the Premier Perspective Comparative Hospital database.
      2 Includes heparins and heparin-like agents such as low molecular weight heparin and synthetic heparinoid.
      3 Calculated as the average of the mean daily cost of the days included in the period.
      4 Calculated as the mean daily costs per patient.
      5 Calculated as the mean total hospitalization costs per patient.

      Discussion

      Based on real-world data, this large retrospective study was conducted to quantify the progression of daily hospitalization costs among patients receiving anticoagulant therapy with an admitting/primary diagnosis of DVT or PE. A total of 28,953 DVT and 35,550 PE patients, identified from January 2009 to March 2013, were studied. Overall, DVT patients incurred costs on average of $1,594 per hospitalization day, while PE patients accounted for $1,735 of costs per day. For both cohorts, costs stabilized on the third day of hospitalization (DVT: $1,558; PE: $1,564) with pharmacy costs remaining stable throughout the hospital stay. The 10% of DVT and 24% of PE patients with an ICU episode during their hospital stay incurred much higher total and daily costs compared to the overall population and their costs took longer to stabilize.
      In the literature, the prevalence of DVT is higher than PE, which was not the case in our sample of patients [
      • Heit J.A.
      • Cohen A.T.
      • Anderson F.A.
      Estimated Annual Number of Incident and Recurrent, Non- Fatal and Fatal VenousThromboembolism (VTE) Events in the US.
      ,
      • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
      Venous thromboembolism in adult hospitalizations - United States, 2007–2009.
      ]. This suggests that our sample of DVT patients may not reflect the entire DVT population and could represent a more severe population. In the subsample of patients with an ICU stay during their hospitalization, higher daily and overall costs were found for DVT patients compared to PE patients. The cost breakdown for DVT and PE patients with an ICU stay showed that DVT patients had qualitatively higher surgery, supply, and pharmacy costs relative to PE patients, while other cost components (i.e., room and board, nursing, and laboratory costs) were more similar. The degree of severity of the admissions was investigated and was lower for DVT versus PE patients with an ICU stay in the current study. Among DVT patients with an ICU stay, 480 (16.8%) had an extreme degree of severity compared to 2,386 (27.9%) for corresponding PE patients. This suggests that DVT patients with an ICU stay required more expensive care compared to PE patients with an ICU stay, even if PE is a more life-threatening condition.
      To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to quantify the progression of daily costs among hospitalized patients with an admitting/primary diagnosis of DVT or PE. Spyropoulos et al. (2007) used the Integrated Health Care Information Service National Managed Care database to quantify the total hospitalization cost of patients with a primary diagnosis of DVT or PE during the period from February 1998 to June 2004 [
      • Spyropoulos A.C.
      • Lin J.
      Direct medical costs of venous thromboembolism and subsequent hospital readmission rates: an administrative claims analysis from 30 managed care organizations.
      ]. The authors found an initial hospitalization cost of $9,805 for DVT patients and $14,146 for PE patients. More recently, Lefebvre et al. (2012) used data from the Ingenix National Managed Care database between January 2004 and December 2008 to assess the annual healthcare cost of VTE patients. The authors reported an annual healthcare cost of $33,531, of which 51% was related to hospital stays [
      • Lefebvre P.
      • Laliberté F.
      • Nutescu E. a
      • Duh M.S.
      • LaMori J.
      • Bookhart B.K.
      • et al.
      All-cause and potentially disease-related health care costs associated with venous thromboembolism in commercial, Medicare, and Medicaid beneficiaries.
      ]. Our results are similar to the findings of these two studies and concur with the literature that VTEs lead to important healthcare costs.
      With a significant part of healthcare costs linked to hospitalizations, new anticoagulation therapies can offer alternative options in managing DVT and PE. Recent studies have evaluated the impact of target-specific oral anticoagulants versus the standard of care on hospital LOS among VTE and NVAF patients [
      • Fonseca E.
      • Walker D.R.
      • Hill J.
      • Hess G.P.
      Abstract 282: Dabigatran Etexilate is Associated with Shorter Hospital Length of Stay Compared to Warfarin in Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation.
      ,
      • Laliberté F.
      • Pilon D.
      • Raut M.K.
      • Nelson W.W.
      • Olson W.H.
      • Germain G.
      • et al.
      Hospital length of stay: is rivaroxaban associated with shorter inpatient stay compared to warfarin among patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation?.
      ,
      • Van Bellen B.
      • Bamber L.
      • Correa de Carvalho F.
      • Prins M.
      • Wang M.
      • Lensing A.W.
      Reduction in the length of stay with rivaroxaban as a single-drug regimen for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.
      ]. These authors reported that patients treated with target-specific oral anticoagulants had a significantly shorter LOS compared to patients receiving the standard of care. Our results suggest that LOS is a major cost driver in hospitalization and any reduction in the LOS may translate into relatively important cost savings for both DVT and PE cohorts.
      The Joint Commission reported in the National Patient Safety Goals that anticoagulation therapy is more likely than other treatments to cause complications due to complex dosing, insufficient monitoring, and inconsistent patient adherence [
      The Joint Commission. National Patient Safety Goals Effective January 1, 2014.
      ,
      • Biscup-Horn P.J.
      • Streiff M.B.
      • Ulbrich T.R.
      • Nesbit T.W.
      • Shermock K.M.
      Impact of an inpatient anticoagulation management service on clinical outcomes.
      ,
      • Clayville L.R.
      • Anderson K.V.
      • Miller S. a
      • St Onge E.L.
      New options in anticoagulation for the prevention of venous thromboembolism and stroke.
      ]. The standard of care (i.e., low molecular weight heparin/VKA), for example, requires frequent laboratory INR monitoring and warfarin dosage titration because of its variability in dose response [
      • Biscup-Horn P.J.
      • Streiff M.B.
      • Ulbrich T.R.
      • Nesbit T.W.
      • Shermock K.M.
      Impact of an inpatient anticoagulation management service on clinical outcomes.
      ,
      • Clayville L.R.
      • Anderson K.V.
      • Miller S. a
      • St Onge E.L.
      New options in anticoagulation for the prevention of venous thromboembolism and stroke.
      ]. Furthermore, our findings that our sample of VTE patients received seven drugs, on average and were administered 13 doses per day can potentially increase the incidence of medication errors and adverse drug events. On the other hand, target-specific oral anticoagulants have a more predictable dose response and are administered once or twice daily in fixed doses and without routine laboratory monitoring, giving patients the advantage of a potentially shorter duration of hospitalization. It was reported in a recent review by Dobesh that these advantages could reduce the costs on the health care system by potentially preventing recurrent VTE and its complications [
      • Dobesh P.P.
      Economic implications of inadequate treatment of venous thromboembolism and potential solutions.
      ]. Furthermore, it was shown in a recent study that the use of a bridging agent, which is not necessary for target-specific oral anticoagulants, prolonged hospital LOS [
      • Smoyer-Tomic K.
      • Siu K.
      • Walker D.R.
      • Johnson B.H.
      • Smith D.M.
      • Sander S.
      • et al.
      Anticoagulant use, the prevalence of bridging, and relation to length of stay among hospitalized patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation.
      ]. These advantages of target-specific oral anticoagulants may offset their higher acquisition cost by decreasing pharmacy and labor costs related to the administration of bridging agents and frequent INR monitoring. In addition, pharmacy costs excluding anticoagulant agents were high and any reduction in LOS would impact the cost of these other medications used by patients during their hospitalization.
      This study was subject to some limitations. As with any study based on healthcare databases, the data may have contained inaccuracies or omissions in coded procedures, diagnoses, or pharmacy claims. Also, both the admitting pattern and the costing model of the current study are specific to the United States. A recent study by Van Bellen and colleagues that used data from the EINSTEIN DVT and EINSTEIN PE trials including study centers from Western Europe, Eastern Europe, North America, South America, Israel, Australia and New Zealand, Asia, and South Africa reported that North America had lower admission rates compared to other regions of the world [
      • Van Bellen B.
      • Bamber L.
      • Correa de Carvalho F.
      • Prins M.
      • Wang M.
      • Lensing A.W.a.
      Reduction in the length of stay with rivaroxaban as a single-drug regimen for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.
      ]. As mentioned by the authors, in North America only 19% of patients with DVT were admitted to the hospital as compared to 85% in South America. Higher hospitalization rates were reported in regions such as Eastern Europe (i.e., 94% for PE and 82% for DVT) that may be caused by concerns regarding bleeding risk and possible complications in patients with VTE, or a reduced awareness about best practices in VTE management [
      • Van Bellen B.
      • Bamber L.
      • Correa de Carvalho F.
      • Prins M.
      • Wang M.
      • Lensing A.W.a.
      Reduction in the length of stay with rivaroxaban as a single-drug regimen for the treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.
      ,
      • Cohen A.
      • Chiu K.M.
      • Park K.
      • Jeyaindran S.
      • Tambunan K.L.
      • Ward C.
      • et al.
      Managing venous thromboembolism in Asia: winds of change in the era of new oral anticoagulants.
      ]. In addition, the observational design could have been susceptible to various biases such as information or classification bias (e.g., identification of false-positive DVT or PE events). It is also possible that DVT or PE events in the database’s claims were undercoded (i.e., false-negative). Despite these limitations, the current research contributes to the existing literature by providing valuable information with real-life scenarios and a large sample size.

      Conclusion

      This study found that hospitalization costs of DVT and PE patients were high in the first three days and stabilized thereafter. In addition, patients with an ICU stay during their hospitalization had higher costs than the overall population. This effect was more pronounced in the DVT population with twofold higher hospitalization costs which may suggest a higher acuity of the DVT patients that get hospitalized. The results of this study suggest that any change in treatment strategies or protocols that could affect LOS may impact the hospitalization costs of DVT and PE populations.

      Transparency

      Declaration of Funding

      This research was funded by Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC, Raritan, NJ, United States. Rivaroxaban is distributed by Janssen Scientific Affairs in the United States.

      Declaration of Financial/other Relationship

      Four of the authors (Laliberté F, Pilon D, Germain G, and Lefebvre P) are employees of Analysis Group, Inc., a consulting company that has received research grants from Janssen Scientific Affairs. Three of the authors (SH Mody, J Lopatto, and BK Bookhart) are employees of Janssen Scientific Affairs. Prof. Dasta is a consultant for Janssen Scientific Affairs. Dr. Nutescu is a paid consultant for Janssen Scientific Affairs.

      Acknowledgement

      There is no acknowledgment.

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