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The effect of red palm olein and refined palm olein on lipids and haemostatic factors in hyperfibrinogenaemic subjects

  • Susanna C Scholtz
    Footnotes
    Affiliations
    Food Science Research Group, School of Physiology, Nutrition and Consumer Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa
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  • Marlien Pieters
    Correspondence
    Corresponding author. Tel.: +27-18-2992466; fax: +27-18-2992464.
    Footnotes
    Affiliations
    Potchefstroom Institute of Nutrition, School of Physiology, Nutrition and Consumer Sciences, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education (PU for CHE), Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa
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  • Welma Oosthuizen
    Footnotes
    Affiliations
    Potchefstroom Institute of Nutrition, School of Physiology, Nutrition and Consumer Sciences, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education (PU for CHE), Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa
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  • Johann C Jerling
    Footnotes
    Affiliations
    Potchefstroom Institute of Nutrition, School of Physiology, Nutrition and Consumer Sciences, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education (PU for CHE), Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa
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  • Magdalena J.C Bosman
    Footnotes
    Affiliations
    Food Science Research Group, School of Physiology, Nutrition and Consumer Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa
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  • Hester H Vorster
    Footnotes
    Affiliations
    Food Science Research Group, School of Physiology, Nutrition and Consumer Sciences, North-West University, Potchefstroom, 2520, South Africa
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  • Author Footnotes
    1 Preparation and dissemination of muffins and rusks. Responsible, together with W. Oosthuizen, M.J.C. Bosman, J.C. Jerling and M. Pieters, for the execution of the total study. Responsible for literature searches, statistical analyses, processing of data. Main author of the paper.
    2 Responsible, together with S.C. Scholtz, W. Oosthuizen, M.J.C. Bosman and J.C. Jerling, for the execution of the total study. Responsible for literature searches, execution of laboratory analyses, statistical analyses and processing and compilation of the data. Part of own PhD study.
    3 Study coordinator, responsible for the execution of the total study, laboratory analyses, compilation of the data, literature searches and writing of the paper.
    4 Design, planning and approval of final protocol. Responsible, together with W. Oosthuizen, S.C. Scholtz and M. Pieters, for the execution of the total study and writing of the paper.
    5 Coordination, preparation and dissemination of muffins and rusks to subjects. Involved in execution of the total study.
    6 Design, planning, approval of final protocol.

      Abstract

      Little is known about the physiological effects of red palm olein (RPO). The effects of red palm olein and palm olein (POL) compared to sunflower oil (SFO), on lipids, haemostatic factors and fibrin network characteristics in hyperfibrinogenaemic volunteers were investigated.
      Fifty-nine free-living, hyperfibrinogenaemic volunteers participated in this randomized, controlled, single blind parallel study. After a 4-week run-in, during which subjects received sunflower oil products, they were paired and randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups receiving products containing 25 g/day (≈12% of total energy intake) of either red palm olein, palm olein or sunflower oil for another 4 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, blood samples and dietary intakes were measured before run-in, and before and after intervention.
      The differences in changes in total serum cholesterol response between palm olein and red palm olein (+0.59 vs. +0.18 mmol/l; p=0.053), and between palm olein and sunflower oil (+0.59 vs. −0.003 mmol/l; p≤0.01) were significant. The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) response in the palm olein—and sunflower oil—groups also differed significantly (+0.42 vs. −0.11 mmol/l; p≤0.01). Tissue plasminogen activator antigen (tPAag) decreased significantly in the red palm olein group compared to the palm olein—and sunflower oil—groups. No effects were found in other haemostatic variables. Palm olein and red palm olein had no independent effect on fibrin network characteristics. In conclusion, compared to palm olein, red palm olein had less detrimental effects on the lipid profile and decreased tissue plasminogen activator antigen. Studies in larger groups are advised for confirmation of results, elucidation of mechanisms and effects of nonglyceride constituents of red palm oil (PO).

      Keywords

      Abbreviations:

      PO (palm oil), SFA (saturated fatty acids), MUFA (monounsaturated fatty acids), POL (palm olein), RPO (red palm olein), CVD (cardiovascular disease), LDLC (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol), SFO (sunflower oil), TG (triacylglycerol), CI (confidence intervals), PORIM (Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia), BMI (body mass index), g (gram), l (litre), ml (milli litre), °C (degrees Celcius), μl (microlitre), CV (coefficients of variance), TC (total cholesterol), HDLC (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), TAT (thrombin–antithrombin complex), PAP (plasmin–antiplasmin complex), tPAag (tissue plasminogen activator antigen), PAI-1act (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity), KS (permeability), MLR (mass–length ratio), % En (percentage of total energy), C18:2 (linoleic acid), PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids), C16:0 (palmitic acid), C18:1 (oleic acid), C16:1 (palmitoleic acid), C14:0 (myristic acid)
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